Year 1 Maths Overview
Our Year 1 Maths learning builds on the foundation set in Reception and is, of course, based on the National Curriculum.  We aim to both support and challenge the children through structured teaching and by reinforcing key concepts with concrete objects and pictorial representations wherever possible.  We believe that all children should be provided with opportunities to work at greater depth and encourage children to really think about their learning by asking questions such as: Why? ... What happens if...? How could you explain that?
Here is a summary of the key areas of learning and the 'Big Ideas' that are relevant for each area of study.  
Children will be taught core mathematical procedures and skills and will be asked to apply these by solving a variety of problems.

Number and Place Value
*Count to and across 100, forwards and backwards, beginning with 0 or 1, or  from any given number
*Count, read and write numbers to 100 in numerals; count in multiples of twos, fives and tens
*Given a number, identify one more and one less
*Identify and represent numbers using objects and pictorial representations including the number line, and use the language of: equal to, more than, less than (fewer), most, least
*Read and write numbers from 1 to 20 in numerals and words.

The BIG Ideas
- The position a digit is placed in a number determines its value.
- The language used to name numbers does not always expose the place value, for example the word ‘twelve’ does not make it transparent that the value of this number is ten and two. It is important that children develop secure understanding of the value of each digit.
- Place value is based on unitising: treating a group of things as one ‘unit’. In mathematics, units can be any size, for example units of 1, 2, 5 and 10 are used in money. In place value units of 1, 10 and 100 are used.


Multiplication and Division
*Solve one-step problems involving multiplication and division, by calculating the answer using concrete objects, pictorial representations and arrays with the support of the teacher.

The BIG Ideas 
- Counting in steps of equal sizes is based on the big idea of ‘unitising’ ; treating a group of, say, five objects as one unit of five.
- Working with arrays helps pupils to become aware of the commutative property of multiplication, that 2 × 5 is equivalent to 5 × 2.


Measurement
*Compare, describe and solve practical problems for:
    - lengths and heights [for example, long/short, longer/shorter, tall/short, double/half]
    - mass/weight [for example, heavy/light, heavier than, lighter than]
    - capacity and volume [for example, full/empty, more than, less than, half,  half full,       quarter]
    - time [for example, quicker, slower, earlier, later]
*Measure and begin to record the following:
    - lengths and heights
    - mass/weight
    - capacity and volume
    - time (hours, minutes, seconds)
    - recognise and know the value of different denominations of coins and  notes
     - sequence events in chronological order using language [for example,  before and        after, next, first, today, yesterday, tomorrow, morning, afternoon and evening]
*Recognise and use language relating to dates, including days of the week, weeks,       months and years
*Tell the time to the hour and half past the hour and draw the hands on a clock face to   show these times.

The BIG Ideas
- Measurement is about comparison, for example measuring to find out which rope is the longest.
- Measurement is about equivalence, for example how many cubes are equivalent to the length of the table or the mass of the teddy?
- Standard units can initially be introduced through using a unit that is greater than the things being compared, for example comparing the capacity of a cup and a carton by filling each and pouring into matching bottles to compare the two.
- Measuring is a practical activity and activities should be conducted in practical contexts, using real materials.

Addition and Subtraction
*Read, write and interpret mathematical statements involving addition (+), subtraction (–) and equals (=) signs
*Represent and use number bonds and related subtraction facts within 20
*Add and subtract one-digit and two-digit numbers to 20, including zero
*Solve one-step problems that involve addition and subtraction, using concrete objects and pictorial representations, and missing number problems such as 7 = ☐ – 9.

The BIG Ideas
- Relating numbers to 5 and 10 helps develop knowledge of the number bonds within 20. For example, given 8 + 7, thinking of 7 as 2 + 5 and adding the 2 to 8 to make 10 and then the 5 to total 15.
- Thinking of part whole relationships is helpful in linking addition and subtraction. For example, where the whole is 6, and 4 and 2 are parts. This means that 4 and 2 together form the whole, which is 6 and 6 subtract 4 leaves the 2 and 6 subtract 2 leaves the 4.


Fractions 
*Recognise, find and name a half as one of two equal parts of an object, shape or quantity
*Recognise, find and name a quarter as one of four equal parts of an object, shape or quantity

The BIG Ideas 
 -Fractions express a relationship between a whole and equal parts of the whole. Ensure children express this relationship when talking about fractions. For example, ‘If the circle (where the circle is divided into four equal parts with one part shaded) is the whole, one part is one quarter of the whole circle.’
- Halving involves partitioning an object, shape or quantity into two equal parts. The two parts need to be equivalent in, for example, area, mass or quantity.


Geometry - properties of space, position and direction
*Recognise and name common 2-D and 3-D shapes, including:
    - 2-D shapes [for example, rectangles (including squares), circles and triangles]
    - 3-D shapes [for example, cuboids (including cubes), pyramids and spheres].
*Describe position, direction and movement, including whole, half, quarter and three-       quarter turns.

The BIG Ideas 
It is important for children to be familiar with a range of 2-D and 3-D shapes and not just recognise them in specific orientations, e.g. thinking that all triangle must have equal sides and equal angles (e.g. like an equilateral triangle).
- It is preferable to introduce 3-D shapes before 2-D shapes, since 2-D shapes only exist in the real world as faces of 3-D shapes.
- An emphasis should be placed upon identifying and describing the properties of shapes. It is important that pupils develop the correct mathematical language
to do so.
- The development of precise language to describe position and movement is important.

Key Instant Recall Facts
A vital part of maths is the ability to quickly recall and use key number facts. To help the children with this, we have broken down the key skills across each year group and into bite-sized chunks.  

The 'Key Instant Recall Facts' for Year 1 are as follows:
To know number bonds for each number to 6.
To know doubles and halves of numbers to 10.
To can tell the time (to the nearest half hour).
To know number bonds for each number to 10.